Posts Tagged ‘medicine’

Ways to Bring the Brain Dead ‘Back to Life’

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Would you get a brain cell transplant? And just how many cells can you have replaced without becoming a whole new person?

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Thanks to medical advances, we can use things like organ transplants and mechanical ventilators to keep us alive – we can even resuscitate a heart that’s stopped beating. So why can’t we bring a brain back to life? Well, our brains are made up of trillions of connections, and generating new brain cells or neurons is complicated. The research, and methods, are pretty controversial. The results – bringing a seemingly brain dead person back to life – could have huge implications. Procedures also come with a big risk of making things worse and they raise ethical questions. Would you elect to have a brain cell transplant?

BrainCraft was created by Vanessa Hill (@nessyhill) and is brought to you by PBS Digital Studios. Talking psychology, neuroscience & why we act the way we do.

Hosted, Produced and Animated by Vanessa Hill 🐨
Written by Bahar Gholipour http://bahargholipour.com/

References 🕯
Falkner, S., Grade, S., Dimou, L., Conzelmann, K. K., Bonhoeffer, T., Götz, M., & Hübener, M. (2016). Transplanted embryonic neurons integrate into adult neocortical circuits. Nature, 539(7628), 248-253. https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/nature20113.html

Trials of embryonic stem cells to launch in China https://www.nature.com/news/trials-of-embryonic-stem-cells-to-launch-in-china-1.22068

Zhang, L., Yin, J. C., Yeh, H., Ma, N. X., Lee, G., Chen, X. A., … & Wu, G. Y. (2015). Small molecules efficiently reprogram human astroglial cells into functional neurons. Cell Stem Cell, 17(6), 735-747. http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(15)00419-1

Li, H., & Chen, G. (2016). In vivo reprogramming for CNS repair: regenerating neurons from endogenous glial cells. Neuron, 91(4), 728-738. http://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(16)30467-6

What Your Doctor Wants To Tell You, But Can’t (From A Medical Physician)

People do a lot of dumb, dangerous things to their bodies — which is why we consulted a medical doctor to talk about everything medical physicians and professionals all the world over would love to tell their patients about health, medicine and sticking things up their butt… if it didn’t threaten their job security.

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The Little Known Truth About Mammograms

Turns out, mammograms save fewer lives than you think.

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Magandang Buhay: Christy and Jeremy’s support system

Christy Lagapa and Jeremy Glinoga describe how their families support them.

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What Happens When You Get Rabies?

Rabies has lead to legends of werewolves, vampires, and zombies. And while it’s preventable, it still plagues around 60,000 people a year.
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↓Want more gross info?↓

WHO on Rabies:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs099/en/

CDC on Rabies:
https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/

Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2014:
http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdfplus/10.2460/javma.248.7.777

Map of US human rabies deaths from 2003-July 2014 drawn from data here:
https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/location/usa/surveillance/human_rabies.html
http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdf/10.2460/javma.245.10.1111

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Host, Writer, Editor
Anna Rothschild

Camera, Sound, Research
K Melvin

Nature’s World 3
Horrendous Crimes
Unwanted Assignment Main underscore
Biotic Factor b
The Human Kernal a
Music Provided by APM

Special Thanks to Dr. Ryan Wallace

GROSS FOOTAGE AND STILLS

Original Footage
©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017

The Wolf Man (1941)
Universal Pictures

Nosferatu (1922)
Jofa-Atelier Berlin-Johannisthal, Prana-Film GmbH

Night of the Living Dead (1968)
Image Ten, Laurel Group, Market Square Productions
The Nervous System
Archive.org/ Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation

Circulatory Control
Archive.org/Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Nursing Care of the Sick and Injured
Archive.org/US Dept Health, Education & Welfare; US Office of Civil Defense

Close-up of dog’s face during late-stage “dumb” paralytic rabies
CDC/Barbara Andrews

“Rabies and hydrophobia…” George Fleming 1872 Wellcome L0018105
Wikimedia Commons/George Fleming

Canine suspected of being rabid and aggressive
CDC

Rabies control in the community
US National Library of Medicine

Rabies Patient
CDC

Senses of Man
Archive.org/Indiana University, Bloomington. Audio-Visual Center

Tri-colored bat (6022400811)
Wikimedia Commons/Gary Peeples/USFWS

Presence of dog-transmitted human rabies based on most recent data points from difference sources, 2010-2014
WHO

Middle Ages rabid dog
Wikimedia Commons/Scanned from Dobson, Mary J. (2008) Disease, Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Quercus, p. 157

Map of rabies cases in the US since 2003

GROSS SFX
Cockroaches
Freesound/StateAardvark­
(used with permission from author)

Squeak Pack/squeak_10
Freesound/Corsica_S

Wink
Freesound/Bennychico11

Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios

19 Amazing Facts That Seem Fake at First Glance

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Blood Types: ABO and Rh (with donuts and sprinkles!)

All about blood types – ABO and Rh blood groups. Who donates to whom? How are blood types inherited? What are the medical issues involved with transfusions? DON’T memorize that donor / recipient table – watch this video instead!

Links to videos mentioned:
Mendelian Genetics: Fun with Cats and Peas http://youtu.be/xtJwHytHRfI

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VIDEO DETAILS:

Blood Groups: ABO and Rh
Blood Group Systems
32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion
The most important of these: ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system

Discovery of ABO Blood Types
ABO blood types were discovered in 1900 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna
He wondered why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions and others did not
Inheritance

Blood types are inherited genetic traits (like eye color, hair color, etc.)

ABO Analogy: Donuts and Sprinkles
donut = red blood cell
A sprinkles = A antigens
B sprinkles = B antigens
no sprinkles = no antigens (plain donut)

What are the antigens chemically?

Alleles in the ABO System
i = base (plain donut)
IA = encodes A antigens
IB = encodes B antigens

Allele Combinations
ii
IAIA or IAi
IBIB or IBi
IAIB

Antigens and Antibodies
The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as SELF antigens
If foreign antigens are discovered in your body, antibodies (or immunoglobulins) will be made by B cells of the immune system

Antibody Structure

Antigen + Antibody = agglutination reaction
Agglutination = the clumping of particles
Latin: agglutinare meaning ‘to glue’

Mixing of all blood groups and the result

KEY: CANNOT transfuse if foreign antigens are introduced!!!

The Rh Antigen
Inherited in Mendelian fashion!
Medical issue: Rh- mother and Rh+ fetus
Good News…
Rho(D) Globulin Treatment
(“RhoGAM”)

Progress on the Road to Curing Motor Neuron Disease – Professor Chris Shaw

The lecture will cover a description of how we diagnose and treat Motor Neuron Disease, why motor neurons degenrate and the genetic basis of disease. It will also cover new cellular and animal models of disease that are informing us about disease mechanisms and will advance drug discovery.

The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:
http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/whither-to-the-creeping-paralysis-progress-on-the-road-to-curing-motor-neuron

Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website.
http://www.gresham.ac.uk

Return of the Microbes: How infections are once more taking over – Professor William Ayliffe

After decades of improvement in treatment many microbes were thought to be on the edge of extinction, now they appear to be resurgent: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/return-of-the-microbes-how-infections-are-once-more-taking-over

Whilst this was achieved with smallpox, the promise if eradication of trachoma and river blindness remains elusive.
Furthermore the increasing resistance if organisms to antibiotics is becoming and urgent challenge in all parts of the world. The resurgence if Tuberculosis is a particular problem.

How these organisms cause disease, blindness, how they are treated and how we may eradicate them concerns each and every one of us. The answer is becoming more difficult and more urgent to find.

The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/return-of-the-microbes-how-infections-are-once-more-taking-over

Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 1,500 lectures free to access or download from the website.
Website: http://www.gresham.ac.uk
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