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Thanks to medical advances, we can use things like organ transplants and mechanical ventilators to keep us alive – we can even resuscitate a heart that’s stopped beating. So why can’t we bring a brain back to life? Well, our brains are made up of trillions of connections, and generating new brain cells or neurons is complicated. The research, and methods, are pretty controversial. The results – bringing a seemingly brain dead person back to life – could have huge implications. Procedures also come with a big risk of making things worse and they raise ethical questions. Would you elect to have a brain cell transplant?
Falkner, S., Grade, S., Dimou, L., Conzelmann, K. K., Bonhoeffer, T., Götz, M., & Hübener, M. (2016). Transplanted embryonic neurons integrate into adult neocortical circuits. Nature, 539(7628), 248-253. https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/nature20113.html
Zhang, L., Yin, J. C., Yeh, H., Ma, N. X., Lee, G., Chen, X. A., … & Wu, G. Y. (2015). Small molecules efficiently reprogram human astroglial cells into functional neurons. Cell Stem Cell, 17(6), 735-747. http://www.cell.com/cell-stem-cell/abstract/S1934-5909(15)00419-1
People do a lot of dumb, dangerous things to their bodies — which is why we consulted a medical doctor to talk about everything medical physicians and professionals all the world over would love to tell their patients about health, medicine and sticking things up their butt… if it didn’t threaten their job security.
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Rabies has lead to legends of werewolves, vampires, and zombies. And while it’s preventable, it still plagues around 60,000 people a year.
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WHO on Rabies:
CDC on Rabies:
Map of US human rabies deaths from 2003-July 2014 drawn from data here:
Host, Writer, Editor
Camera, Sound, Research
Special Thanks to Dr. Ryan Wallace
GROSS FOOTAGE AND STILLS
©WGBH Educational Foundation 2017
The Wolf Man (1941)
Jofa-Atelier Berlin-Johannisthal, Prana-Film GmbH
Archive.org/Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Canine suspected of being rabid and aggressive
Senses of Man
Archive.org/Indiana University, Bloomington. Audio-Visual Center
Map of rabies cases in the US since 2003
Being a scientist is fun: you conduct new experiments every day (some of them are totally crazy!). And all these experiments can prove incredible facts, and we chose those we considered the most amazing and unbelievable.
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All about blood types – ABO and Rh blood groups. Who donates to whom? How are blood types inherited? What are the medical issues involved with transfusions? DON’T memorize that donor / recipient table – watch this video instead!
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Blood Groups: ABO and Rh
Blood Group Systems
32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion
The most important of these: ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system
Discovery of ABO Blood Types
ABO blood types were discovered in 1900 by Dr. Karl Landsteiner at the University of Vienna
He wondered why some patients died as a result of blood transfusions and others did not
Blood types are inherited genetic traits (like eye color, hair color, etc.)
What are the antigens chemically?
IAIA or IAi
IBIB or IBi
Antigens and Antibodies
The antigens you have on your blood cells are recognized by your immune system as SELF antigens
If foreign antigens are discovered in your body, antibodies (or immunoglobulins) will be made by B cells of the immune system
KEY: CANNOT transfuse if foreign antigens are introduced!!!
The lecture will cover a description of how we diagnose and treat Motor Neuron Disease, why motor neurons degenrate and the genetic basis of disease. It will also cover new cellular and animal models of disease that are informing us about disease mechanisms and will advance drug discovery.
The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website:
Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website.
After decades of improvement in treatment many microbes were thought to be on the edge of extinction, now they appear to be resurgent: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/return-of-the-microbes-how-infections-are-once-more-taking-over
Whilst this was achieved with smallpox, the promise if eradication of trachoma and river blindness remains elusive.
Furthermore the increasing resistance if organisms to antibiotics is becoming and urgent challenge in all parts of the world. The resurgence if Tuberculosis is a particular problem.
The transcript and downloadable versions of the lecture are available from the Gresham College website: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/return-of-the-microbes-how-infections-are-once-more-taking-over
Gresham College has been giving free public lectures since 1597. This tradition continues today with all of our five or so public lectures a week being made available for free download from our website. There are currently over 1,500 lectures free to access or download from the website.